Pregled ili što je kakvo?

Da bi mogli prepoznati kada nešto nije dobro morate znati što gledate i kako to izgleda normalno. Taj osjećaj steći ćete vježbom i proučavanjem Vaše životinje dok je zdrava.
Mnogo će Vam znakova otkriti već sam stav i ponašanje životinje.
Kod bolova leđa obično se drže šaranasto povijenih leđa, slično držanje može upućivati i na kolike (bubrezi, crijeva…). Učestalo protresanje glavom upozorava na upalu uha ili strano tijelo u uhu. Učestalo okretanje oko sebe uvijek u istu stranu bez obzira s koje strane pozivate životinju može ukazivati na poremećaj središnjeg živčanog sustava, unutrašnjeg uha… Učestalo zauzimanje stava za mokrenje ili veliku nuždu govori najčešće o grčevima, moguće o začepu, poteškoćama sa prostatom, mokraćnim kamencima…
Zato gledajte kako se ponaša u pojedinim prilikama te reagirajte ako primijetite promjene. Dobro bi bilo da ih znate opisati veterinaru i skrenuti mu pažnju na promjene koje su osobite za Vašu životinju jer neki oblici ponašanja mogu biti općenito prihvatljivi ali nisu uobičajeni upravo u slučaju Vaše životinje.

NOS
– normalno:
* vlažan i hladan
* čist (za sna se može osušiti)
– nije normalno:
* suh i hrapav
* ima iscjedak
* krvari

OČI
– normalno:
* jasne, čiste i vlažne
* usredotočene
* zjenice jednako raširene, jednako se sužavaju kada se posvijetli u oba ili jedno oko, jednako se šire u mraku
* bjeloočnica je bijele boje sa ponekom žilicom
– nije normalno:
* bezizražajne, suhe, s iscjetkom
* nije usredotočen pogled
* nejednako otvorene zjenice, nejednako se smanjuju ili šire
* ne reagiraju na svijetlo
* obojana bjeloočnica (žutica, krvarenje)

UŠI
– normalno:
* čista, suha, bez neugodnog mirisa
* bezbolna
* karakteristično držana uška
– nije normalno:
* rane, kraste, otoci, crvenilo i osip uške
* neugodan miris
* obilan sadržaj (gnoj, crni cerumen…)
* bolnost

USTA
– normalno:
* bijeli, čisti zubi
* čvrste ružičaste desni (moguća pigmentacija crne boje)
* nakon pritiska na desni boja se vraća za 1-3 sekunde (vrijeme kapilarnog
punjenja)
– nije normalno:
* plak i kamenac
* otečene, zacrvenjene, bijede, krvave desni
* neugodan zadah

PRSA I DISANJE
– normalno:
* osim dahtanja disanje je diskretnog zvuka
* prsni se koš kreće lagano, bez napora
* trbuh se pokreće tek malo, bez napora
– nije normalno:
* neuobičajena bučnost pri disanju
* napor pri disanju
* Pregledajte površinu tijela ima li kakvih oteklina, kvrga ili masnica. Nije
normalno ako pri blagom pipanju pokazuje bolnost.

TRBUH
– normalno:
* mekan
* ne boli
– nije normalno:
* ikakva masnica, oteklina, kvrga
* bolnost pri pipanju
* napet, tvrd trbuh (treba razlikovati od škakljivosti)

TURGOR KOŽE
– normalno:
* kada naberemo kožu u šator i pustimo ju nabor nestaje trenutačno
– nije normalno:
* ako se ispravlja dovoljno polako da to primijetimo vjerojatno je životinja dehidrirana
* ako se nabor ne ispravlja dehidracija je opasna po život

PULS I OTKUCAJI
– normalno:
* mačka 150-200 o/min
* pas 60-110 o/min (veliki 40-80 o/min)
* puls je lako opipati, pulsatorni val je dobro punjen, snažan, frekvencija varira s udisajima i izdisajima
* podudaran puls s otkucajima srca koje pipamo iza lijevog lakta, pulsatorni val tek malo kasni za srčanim otkucajima
– nije normalno:
* prebrz ili prespor puls
* slab, neujednačen, teško opipljiv puls
* nije podudaran broj otkucaja srca s pulsom
* pulsatorni val je slabo punjen

TEMPERATURA
– normalno:
* 37, 5 – 39ºC (kod mladih životinja do otprilike 1 godine starosti normalno je i do 39,5ºC)
* na toplomjeru se vidi stolica ili trag sluzi smeđkaste boje
– nije normalno:
* bilo kakvo odstupanje od normalne vrijednosti temperature
* pojava krvi na toplomjeru 

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